Solar street lights are raised light sources which are powered by photovoltaic panels generally mounted on the lighting structure. The photovoltaic panels charge a rechargeable battery, which powers a fluorescent or LED lamp during the night.
Solar Panel :
Solar panel is one of the most important parts of solar street lights, as solar panel will convert solar energy into electricity. There are 2 types of solar panel: mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline. Conversion rate of mono-crystalline solar panel is much higher than poly-crystalline.
Lighting Fixture :
LED is usually used as lighting source of modern solar street light, as the LED will provide much higher Lumens with lower energy consumption. The energy consumption of LED fixture is at least 50% lower than HPS fixture which is widely used as lighting source in Traditional street lights.
Rechargeable Battery :
Battery will store the electricity from solar panel during the day and provide energy to the fixture during night. The life cycle of the battery is very important to the lifetime of the light and the capacity of the battery will affect the backup days of the lights.
Controller is also very important to solar street light. A controller will usually decide when should start charging, stop charging, start lighting and stop lighting. Some modern controller are programmable so that user can decide the appropriate chance of charging, lighting and dimming.
Strong Poles are necessary to all street lights, especially to solar street lights as there are components mounted on the top of the pole: Fixtures, Panels and some time batteries. And wind resistance should also be taken into consideration when choosing the pole.